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    Carol
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    Solar Space Weather

    Post  Carol on Sat Jun 02, 2018 11:17 am


    Coronal Holes: 03 Jun 18
    Earth is inside a stream of solar wind flowing from this broad coronal hole.
    Solar wind speed: 696.1 km/sec density: 5.0 protons/cm3



    02 Jun 18 - Sunspot AR2712 has a beta-gamma magnetic field
    that harbors energy for M-class solar flares. Credit: SDO/HMI
    Solar wind speed: 589.7 km/sec
    Density: 7.2 protons/cm3



    Coronal Holes: 02 Jun 18
    Earth is inside a stream of solar wind flowing from this broad coronal hole. Credit: SDO/AIA


    On May 31st, as Earth was entering a stream of high-speed solar wind, hot currents of plasma
    beganto flow through the upper atmosphere over North America.


    http://www.spaceweather.com



    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jyRGMvTYSCM
    Earth/Geo Storm/CERN/Hawaii Getting Worse.


    Last edited by Carol on Sun Jun 03, 2018 9:47 am; edited 2 times in total


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    Re: Solar Space Weather

    Post  Carol on Sat Jun 02, 2018 11:29 am


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YrKiF2Zi7-0
    Geomagnetic Storm, Weird Space Image | S0 News Jun.2.2018



    Must-Watch:
    1) Energy from Space | The Shift Has Begun: https://youtu.be/nsqZJP54shg
    2) Earthspots: https://youtu.be/JlyhCOJKOFU
    3) When Volcanoes Almost Killed a Continent: https://youtu.be/RtkSHii8Af4
    4) Electroquake | Amazing Story: https://youtu.be/hWEn5JZ22dk

    The critical issue in this presentation is whether the reversal is going to happen soon. It is undeniable that the general pole shift and field weakening have presented symptomatically of a reversal or significant excursion, and the only point both ESA/SWARM and MIT use to quell fear is that they believe it will take 1000s of years. The math of losing 5% per decade, and the potential for fast reversals, cast a shadow on such aspersions of safety.

    http://news.berkeley.edu/2014/10/14/earths-magnetic-field-could-flip-within-a-human-lifetime/


    Last edited by Carol on Sat Jun 02, 2018 11:34 am; edited 1 time in total


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    orthodoxymoron

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    Re: Solar Space Weather

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Sat Jun 02, 2018 11:30 am


    Carol wrote:
    By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to prepare the Nation for space weather events, it is hereby ordered as follows:

    Section 1. Policy. Space weather events, in the form of solar flares, solar energetic particles, and geomagnetic disturbances, occur regularly, some with measurable effects on critical infrastructure systems and technologies, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), satellite operations and communication, aviation, and the electrical power grid. Extreme space weather events -- those that could significantly degrade critical infrastructure -- could disable large portions of the electrical power grid, resulting in cascading failures that would affect key services such as water supply, healthcare, and transportation. Space weather has the potential to simultaneously affect and disrupt health and safety across entire continents. Successfully preparing for space weather events is an all-of-nation endeavor that requires partnerships across governments, emergency managers, academia, the media, the insurance industry, non-profits, and the private sector.

    It is the policy of the United States to prepare for space weather events to minimize the extent of economic loss and human hardship. The Federal Government must have (1) the capability to predict and detect a space weather event, (2) the plans and programs necessary to alert the public and private sectors to enable mitigating actions for an impending space weather event, (3) the protection and mitigation plans, protocols, and standards required to reduce risks to critical infrastructure prior to and during a credible threat, and (4) the ability to respond to and recover from the effects of space weather. Executive departments and agencies (agencies) must coordinate their efforts to prepare for the effects of space weather events.

    Sec. 2. Objectives. This order defines agency roles and responsibilities and directs agencies to take specific actions to prepare the Nation for the hazardous effects of space weather. These activities are to be implemented in conjunction with those identified in the 2015 National Space Weather Action Plan (Action Plan) and any subsequent updates. Implementing this order and the Action Plan will require the Federal Government to work across agencies and to develop, as appropriate, enhanced and innovative partnerships with State, tribal, and local governments; academia; non-profits; the private sector; and international partners. These efforts will enhance national preparedness and speed the creation of a space-weather-ready Nation.

    Sec. 3. Coordination. (a) The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), in consultation with the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), shall coordinate the development and implementation of Federal Government activities to prepare the Nation for space weather events, including the activities established in section 5 of this order and the recommendations of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), established by Executive Order 12881 of November 23, 1993 (Establishment of the National Science and Technology Council).

    (b) To ensure accountability for and coordination of research, development, and implementation of activities identified in this order and in the Action Plan, the NSTC shall establish a Space Weather Operations, Research, and Mitigation Subcommittee (Subcommittee). The Subcommittee member agencies shall conduct activities to advance the implementation of this order, to achieve the goals identified in the 2015 National Space Weather Strategy and any subsequent updates, and to coordinate and monitor the implementation of the activities specified in the Action Plan and provide subsequent updates.

    Sec. 4. Roles and Responsibilities. To the extent permitted by law, the agencies below shall adopt the following roles and responsibilities, which are key to ensuring enhanced space weather forecasting, situational awareness, space weather preparedness, and continuous Federal Government operations during and after space weather events.

    (a) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure the timely provision of operational space weather observations, analyses, forecasts, and other products to support the mission of the Department of Defense and coalition partners, including the provision of alerts and warnings for space weather phenomena that may affect weapons systems, military operations, or the defense of the United States.

    (b) The Secretary of the Interior shall support the research, development, deployment, and operation of capabilities that enhance the understanding of variations of the Earth's magnetic field associated with solar-terrestrial interactions.

    (c) The Secretary of Commerce shall:

    (i) provide timely and accurate operational space weather forecasts, watches, warnings, alerts, and real-time space weather monitoring for the government, civilian, and commercial sectors, exclusive of the responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense; and

    (ii) ensure the continuous improvement of operational space weather services, utilizing partnerships, as appropriate, with the research community, including academia and the private sector, and relevant agencies to develop, validate, test, and transition space weather observation platforms and models from research to operations and from operations to research.

    (d) The Secretary of Energy shall facilitate the protection and restoration of the reliability of the electrical power grid during a presidentially declared grid security emergency associated with a geomagnetic disturbance pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 824o-1.

    (e) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall:

    (i) ensure the timely redistribution of space weather alerts and warnings that support national preparedness, continuity of government, and continuity of operations; and

    (ii) coordinate response and recovery from the effects of space weather events on critical infrastructure and the broader community.

    (f) The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) shall:

    (i) implement and support a national research program to understand the Sun and its interactions with Earth and the solar system to advance space weather modeling and prediction capabilities applicable to space weather forecasting;

    (ii) develop and operate space-weather-related research missions, instrument capabilities, and models; and

    (iii) support the transition of space weather models and technology from research to operations and from operations to research.

    (g) The Director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) shall support fundamental research linked to societal needs for space weather information through investments and partnerships, as appropriate.

    (h) The Secretary of State, in consultation with the heads of relevant agencies, shall carry out diplomatic and public diplomacy efforts to strengthen global capacity to respond to space weather events.

    (i) The Secretaries of Defense, the Interior, Commerce, Transportation, Energy, and Homeland Security, along with the Administrator of NASA and the Director of NSF, shall work together, consistent with their ongoing activities, to develop models, observation systems, technologies, and approaches that inform and enhance national preparedness for the effects of space weather events, including how space weather events may affect critical infrastructure and change the threat landscape with respect to other hazards.

    (j) The heads of all agencies that support National Essential Functions, defined by Presidential Policy Directive 40 (PPD-40) of July 15, 2016 (National Continuity Policy), shall ensure that space weather events are adequately addressed in their all-hazards preparedness planning, including mitigation, response, and recovery, as directed by PPD-8 of March 30, 2011 (National Preparedness).

    (k) NSTC member agencies shall coordinate through the NSTC to establish roles and responsibilities beyond those identified in section 4 of this order to enhance space weather preparedness, consistent with each agency's legal authority.

    Sec. 5. Implementation. (a) Within 120 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall develop a plan to test and evaluate available devices that mitigate the effects of geomagnetic disturbances on the electrical power grid through the development of a pilot program that deploys such devices, in situ, in the electrical power grid. After the development of the plan, the Secretary shall implement the plan in collaboration with industry. In taking action pursuant to this subsection, the Secretaries of Energy and Homeland Security shall consult with the Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

    (b) Within 120 days of the date of this order, the heads of the sector-specific agencies that oversee the lifeline critical infrastructure functions as defined by the National Infrastructure Protection Plan of 2013 -- including communications, energy, transportation, and water and wastewater systems -- as well as the Nuclear Reactors, Materials, and Waste Sector, shall assess their executive and statutory authority, and limits of that authority, to direct, suspend, or control critical infrastructure operations, functions, and services before, during, and after a space weather event. The heads of each sector-specific agency shall provide a summary of these assessments to the Subcommittee.

    (c) Within 90 days of receipt of the assessments ordered in section 5(b) of this order, the Subcommittee shall provide a report on the findings of these assessments with recommendations to the Director of OSTP, the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism, and the Director of OMB. The assessments may be used to inform the development and implementation of policy establishing authorities and responsibilities for agencies in response to a space weather event.

    (d) Within 60 days of the date of this order, the Secretaries of Defense and Commerce, the Administrator of NASA, and the Director of NSF, in collaboration with other agencies as appropriate, shall identify mechanisms for advancing space weather observations, models, and predictions, and for sustaining and transitioning appropriate capabilities from research to operations and operations to research, collaborating with industry and academia to the extent possible.

    (e) Within 120 days of the date of this order, the Secretaries of Defense and Commerce shall make historical data from the GPS constellation and other U.S. Government satellites publicly available, in accordance with Executive Order 13642 of May 9, 2013 (Making Open and Machine Readable the New Default for Government Information), to enhance model validation and improvements in space weather forecasting and situational awareness.

    (f) Within 120 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Homeland Security, through the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and in coordination with relevant agencies, shall lead the development of a coordinated Federal operating concept and associated checklist to coordinate Federal assets and activities to respond to notification of, and protect against, impending space weather events. Within 180 days of the publication of the operating concept and checklist, agencies shall develop operational plans documenting their procedures and responsibilities to prepare for, protect against, and mitigate the effects of impending space weather events, in support of the Federal operating concept and compatible with the National Preparedness System described in PPD-8.

    Sec. 6. Stakeholder Engagement. The agencies identified in this order shall seek public-private and international collaborations to enhance observation networks, conduct research, develop prediction models and mitigation approaches, enhance community resilience and preparedness, and supply the services necessary to protect life and property and promote economic prosperity, as consistent with law.

    Sec. 7. Definitions. As used in this order:

    (a) "Prepare" and "preparedness" have the same meaning they have in PPD-8. They refer to the actions taken to plan, organize, equip, train, and exercise to build and sustain the capabilities necessary to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from those threats that pose the greatest risk to the security of the Nation. This includes the prediction and notification of space weather events.

    (b) "Space weather" means variations in the space environment between the Sun and Earth (and throughout the solar system) that can affect technologies in space and on Earth. The primary types of space weather events are solar flares, solar energetic particles, and geomagnetic disturbances.

    (c) "Solar flare" means a brief eruption of intense energy on or near the Sun's surface that is typically associated with sunspots.

    (d) "Solar energetic particles" means ions and electrons ejected from the Sun that are typically associated with solar eruptions.

    (e) "Geomagnetic disturbance" means a temporary disturbance of Earth's magnetic field resulting from solar activity.

    (f) "Critical infrastructure" has the meaning provided in section 1016(e) of the USA Patriot Act of 2001 (42 U.S.C. 5195c(e)), namely systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters.

    (g) "Sector-Specific Agency" means the agencies designated under PPD-21 of February 12, 2013 (Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience), or any successor directive, to be responsible for providing institutional knowledge and specialized expertise as well as leading, facilitating, or supporting the security and resilience programs and associated activities of its designated critical infrastructure sector in the all-hazards environment. Sec. 8. General Provisions.


    (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

    (i) the authority granted by law to an agency, or the head thereof; or (ii) the functions of the Director of OMB relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

    (b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

    (c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

    BARACK OBAMA




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    Carol
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    Re: Solar Space Weather

    Post  Carol on Sat Jun 02, 2018 1:15 pm


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPqYfAHRPtk
    What a Magnetic Reversal Means for Earth

    I interview Ben from Suspicious0bservers on our recent launch of the new magneticreversal.org web resource. The interview defines what a pole shift is and generally overviews the effects a magnetic reversal would have on the weather, geological events, and human health. With many respectable scientists in agreement that the rate of the pole shift is increasing, these effects have already begun to display themselves in climate extremes - I ask Ben about his predictions and analysis regarding what is in store for the planet Earth.


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    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Carol
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    Re: Solar Space Weather

    Post  Carol on Sun Jun 03, 2018 9:42 am



    Earth is inside a stream of solar wind flowing from this broad coronal hole.
    Solar wind speed: 696.1 km/sec density: 5.0 protons/cm3


    https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/real-time-solar-wind

    In this article we briefly explain some of the ideas behind the association of the aurora with geomagnetic activity and a bit about how the ‘K-index’ or ‘K-factor’ works. The aurora is understood to be caused by the interaction of high energy particles (usually electrons) with neutral atoms in the earth's upper atmosphere. These high energy particles can ‘excite’ (by collisions) valence electrons that are bound to the neutral atom. The ‘excited’ electron can then ‘de-excite’ and return back to its initial, lower energy state, but in the process it releases a photon (a light particle). The combined effect of many photons being released from many atoms results in the aurora display that you see.

    The details of how high energy particles are generated during geomagnetic storms constitute an entire discipline of space science in its own right. The basic idea, however, is that the Earth’s magnetic field (let us say the ‘geomagnetic field’) is responding to a outwardly propagating disturbance from the Sun. As the geomagnetic field adjusts to this disturbance, various components of the Earth’s field change form, releasing magnetic energy and thereby accelerating charged particles to high energies. These particles, being charged, are forced to stream along the geomagnetic field lines. Some end up in the upper part of the earth’s neutral atmosphere and the auroral mechanism begins.

    The disturbance of the geomagnetic field may also be measured by an instrument called a magnetometer. At our operations center we receive magnetometer data from dozens of observatories in one minute intervals. The data is received at or near to ‘real-time’ and allows us to keep track of the current state of the geomagnetic conditions. In order to reduce the amount of data that our customers have to deal with we convert the magnetometer data into three-hourly indices which give a quantitative, but less detailed measure of the level of geomagnetic activity. The K-index scale has a range from 0 to 9 and is directly related to the maximum amount of fluctuation (relative to a quiet day) in the geomagnetic field over a three-hour interval.

    The K-index is therefore updated every three hours and the information is made available to our customers as soon as possible. The K-index is also necessarily tied to a specific geomagnetic observatory. For locations where there are no observatories, one can only estimate what the local K-index would be by looking at data from the nearest observatory, but this would be subject to some errors from time to time because geomagnetic activity is not always spatially homogenous. Another item of interest is that the location of the aurora usually changes geomagnetic latitude as the intensity of the geomagnetic storm changes. The location of the aurora often takes on an ‘oval-like’ shape and is appropriately called the auroral oval. A useful map of the approximate location of the auroral oval as a function of the Kp-index was published in the June 1968 copy Sky & Telescope (see page 348). The Kp index is derived through by an algorithm that essentially averages the K-indices from several stations. Note that as a storm becomes more intense, the edge of the auroral boundary typically moves to lower latitudes.


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    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    Carol
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    Re: Solar Space Weather

    Post  Carol on Sun Jun 03, 2018 9:54 am


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3St0s3BJV8
    Meteors, Solar, Temperature Discrepancies | S0 News Jun.3.2018


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    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol
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    orthodoxymoron

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    Re: Solar Space Weather

    Post  orthodoxymoron on Sun Jun 03, 2018 10:57 am

    I think I've been overexposed to the Sun throughout my life. As an SDA, we observed the Seventh-Day Saturday-Sabbath from Sundown-Friday to Sundown-Saturday. I haven't regularly attended the SDA church for a very-long time (and no-one really seemed to care when I stopped attending, which should've signaled an eternal death-sentence according to what SDA's claim to believe). Christianity (as we know it) seems to be Centered in the Sun, but what do I know?? A few years ago, someone looked me in the eye, and said 'I AM RA'. 'RA' is a Sun-God!! This website seems to have devoted a disproportionate amount of space to the Sun. I have somewhat recently suspected that Eschatology might have everything to do with the Sun and Solar-Events. The Sabbath-Commandment is Sun-Centered and/or Creation-Centered, and supposedly originated in the Garden of Eden with the Creation of Humanity on Earth. If so, this means that the Sabbath-Commandment did NOT preexist the Creation of Humanity on Earth, and is probably a Local-Commandment, rather than being Universal and Eternal. I'm obviously attempting to consider Life, the Universe, and Everything with My Presuppositions and with This Present Quest. Strange Bedfellows?? What Would George Michael and Elton John Sing??

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    Carol
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    Re: Solar Space Weather

    Post  Carol on Mon Jun 04, 2018 10:38 am

    Well, then there is this.


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BN2PCn2pFyU
    April 18th: Red Dragon grows bigger & redder &showing orbital path of planet X


    _________________
    What is life?
    It is the flash of a firefly in the night, the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.

    With deepest respect ~ Aloha & Mahalo, Carol

      Current date/time is Sun Sep 23, 2018 6:44 pm